Schematic representations of the four semipolar GaN grown samples. The experimental setup
consists of a heavy-duty diffractometer with an Euler cradle configuration and a Dectris PILATUS
100K two-dimensional detector.
A rapid nondestructive defect assessment and quantification method based on X-ray diffraction and three-dimensional reciprocal-space mapping has been established. A fast read-out two-dimensional detector with a high dynamic range of 20 bits, in combination with a powerful data analysis software package, is set up to provide fast feedback to crystal growers with the goal of supporting the development of reduced defect density GaN growth techniques. This would
contribute strongly to the improvement of the crystal quality of epitaxial structures and therefore of optoelectronic properties. The method of normalized three-dimensional reciprocal-space mapping is found to be a reliable tool which
shows clearly the influence of the parameters of the metal–organic vapour phase epitaxial and hydride vapour phase epitaxial (HVPE) growth methods on the extent of the diffuse scattering streak. This method enables determination of the basal stacking faults and an exploration of the presence of other types of defect such as partial dislocations and prismatic stacking faults. Three-dimensional reciprocal-space mapping is specifically used in the manuscript to determine basal stacking faults quantitatively and to discuss the presence of partial dislocations. This newly developed method has been applied to semipolar GaN structures grown on patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs). The fitting of the diffuse scattering intensity profiles along the stacking fault streaks with simulations based on a Monte Carlo approach has delivered an accurate determination of the basal plane stacking fault density. Three-dimensional
reciprocal-space mapping is shown to be a method sensitive to the influence of crystallographic surface orientation on basal stacking fault densities during investigation of semipolar (1122) GaN grown on an r-plane (1102) PSS and
semipolar (1011) GaN grown on an n-plane (1123) PSS. Moreover, the influence of HVPE overgrowth at reduced temperature on the quality of semipolar (1122) GaN has been studied.