Dr. Lothar Weinhardt

Dr. Lothar Weinhardt

 

Current position
  • Head of department X-ray Spectroscopy
Previous positions
  • Scientist at the University of Würzburg
  • PosDoc at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV)
  • Scientist and lecturer at the University of Würzburg
Field of research
  • X-ray Spectroscopy
  • Development of instrumentation for synchrotron-based soft x-ray spectroscopy
  • Materials for energy
  • Soft x-ray Spectroscopy of liquids, solutions, and gases
Contributions to Monographs

Marcus Bär, Lothar Weinhardt, and Clemens Heske; Chapter “Soft X-Ray and Electron Spectroscopy: A Unique Tool Chest to Characterize the Chemical and Electronic Properties of Surfaces and Interfaces” in “Advanced Characterization Techniques for Thin Film Solar Cells”, edited by D. Abou-Ras, Th. Kirchartz, and U. Rau, 1. Edition - March 2011, Wiley-VCH, Berlin.

C. Heske, L. Weinhardt, and M. Bär, Chapter “X-ray and electron spectroscopy studies of oxide semiconductors for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production” in “On Solar Hydrogen & Nanotechnology”, edited by L. Vayssieres, Wiley & Sons, Singapore, January 2010 (ISBN 978-0-47082-397-2).

Publications


  1. Using the inelastic background in hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for a depth-resolved analysis of the CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se₂ interface
    Hauschild, D.; Steininger, R.; Hariskos, D.; Witte, W.; Tougaard, S.; Heske, C.; Weinhardt, L.
    2021. Journal of vacuum science & technology / A, 39 (6), Article no: 063216. doi:10.1116/6.0001336
  2. Efficient passivation of n-type and p-type silicon surface defects by hydrogen sulfide gas reaction
    Das, U. K.; Theisen, R.; Hua, A.; Upadhyaya, A.; Lam, I.; Mouri, T. K.; Jiang, N.; Hauschild, D.; Weinhardt, L.; Yang, W.; Rohatgi, A.; Heske, C.
    2021. Journal of physics / Condensed matter, 33 (46), Article no: 464002. doi:10.1088/1361-648X/ac1ec8
  3. InO:H-Based Hole-Transport-Layer-Free Tin/Lead Perovskite Solar Cells for Efficient Four-Terminal All-Perovskite Tandem Solar Cells
    Moghadamzadeh, S.; Hossain, I. M.; Loy, M.; Ritzer, D. B.; Hu, H.; Hauschild, D.; Mertens, A.; Becker, J.-P.; Haghighirad, A. A.; Ahlswede, E.; Weinhardt, L.; Lemmer, U.; Nejand, B. A.; Paetzold, U. W.
    2021. ACS applied materials & interfaces, 13 (39), 46488–46498. doi:10.1021/acsami.1c06457
  4. X-SPEC: a 70 eV to 15 keV undulator beamline for X-ray and electron spectroscopies
    Weinhardt, L.; Steininger, R.; Kreikemeyer-Lorenzo, D.; Mangold, S.; Hauschild, D.; Batchelor, D.; Spangenberg, T.; Heske, C.
    2021. Journal of synchrotron radiation, 28 (Part2), 609–617. doi:10.1107/S1600577520016318
  5. Impact of n-Butylammonium Bromide on the Chemical and Electronic Structure of Double-Cation Perovskite Thin Films
    Hauschild, D.; Seitz, L.; Gharibzadeh, S.; Steininger, R.; Jiang, N.; Yang, W.; Paetzold, U. W.; Heske, C.; Weinhardt, L.
    2021. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 13 (44), 53202–53210. doi:10.1021/acsami.1c15707
  6. Coupling methylammonium and formamidinium cations with halide anions: Hybrid orbitals, hydrogen bonding, and the role of dynamics
    Kamal, C.; Weinhardt, L.; Odelius, M.; Hauschild, D.; Seitz, L.; Steininger, R.; Yang, W.; Heske, C.
    2021. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 125 (46), 25917–25926. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.1c08932
  7. Impact of substrate temperature during NaF and KF post-deposition treatments on chemical and optoelectronic properties of alkali-free Cu(In,Ga)Se₂ thin film solar cell absorbers
    Eslam, A.; Wuerz, R.; Hauschild, D.; Weinhardt, L.; Hempel, W.; Powalla, M.; Heske, C.
    2021. Thin Solid Films, 739, Article no: 138979. doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2021.138979
  8. Sulfate Speciation Analysis Using Soft X-ray Emission Spectroscopy
    Weinhardt, L.; Hauschild, D.; Steininger, R.; Jiang, N.; Blum, M.; Yang, W.; Heske, C.
    2021. Analytical chemistry, 93 (23), 8300–8308. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.1c01187
  9. Steep sulfur gradient in CZTSSe solar cells by HS-assisted rapid surface sulfurization
    Taskesen, T.; Pareek, D.; Hauschild, D.; Haertel, A.; Weinhardt, L.; Yang, W.; Pfeiffelmann, T.; Nowak, D.; Heske, C.; Gütay, L.
    2021. RSC Advances, 11 (21), 12687–12695. doi:10.1039/d1ra00494h
  10. Dynamic Effects and Hydrogen Bonding in Mixed-Halide Perovskite Solar Cell Absorbers
    Wilks, R. G.; Erbing, A.; Sadoughi, G.; Starr, D. E.; Handick, E.; Meyer, F.; Benkert, A.; Iannuzzi, M.; Hauschild, D.; Yang, W.; Blum, M.; Weinhardt, L.; Heske, C.; Snaith, H. J.; Odelius, M.; Bär, M.
    2021. The journal of physical chemistry letters, 12, 3885–3890. doi:10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c00745
  11. Chemical Structure of a Carbon-Rich Layer at the Wet-Chemical Processed CuZnSn(S,Se)/Mo Interface
    Hauschild, D.; Wachs, S. J.; Kogler, W.; Seitz, L.; Carter, J.; Schnabel, T.; Krause, B.; Blum, M.; Yang, W.; Ahlswede, E.; Heske, C.; Weinhardt, L.
    2021. IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics. doi:10.1109/JPHOTOV.2021.3059423
  12. Observation of Double Excitations in the Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering of Nitric Oxide
    Fouda, A. E. A.; Seitz, L. C.; Hauschild, D.; Blum, M.; Yang, W.; Heske, C.; Weinhardt, L.; Besley, N. A.
    2020. The journal of physical chemistry letters, 11 (18), 7476–7482. doi:10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c01981
  13. Electron Transfer Dynamics and Structural Effects in Benzonitrile Monolayers with Tuned Dipole Moments by Differently Positioned Fluorine Atoms
    Werner, P.; Wächter, T.; Asyuda, A.; Wiesner, A.; Kind, M.; Bolte, M.; Weinhardt, L.; Terfort, A.; Zharnikov, M.
    2020. ACS applied materials & interfaces, 12 (35), 39859–39869. doi:10.1021/acsami.0c10513
  14. Impact of UV-induced ozone and low-energy Ar-ion cleaning on the chemical structure of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)absorber surfaces
    Van Maris, V. R.; Hauschild, D.; Niesen, T. P.; Eraerds, P.; Dalibor, T.; Palm, J.; Blum, M.; Yang, W.; Heske, C.; Weinhardt, L.
    2020. Journal of applied physics, 128 (15), Art. Nr.: 155301. doi:10.1063/5.0020253
  15. Sulfurization as a promising surface passivation approach for both n- and p-type Si
    Das, U.; Theisen, R.; Hanket, G.; Upadhyaya, A.; Rohatgi, A.; Hua, A.; Weinhardt, L.; Hauschild, D.; Heske, C.
    2020. 47th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 1167–1170, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). doi:10.1109/PVSC45281.2020.9300395
  16. Hybrid chemical bath deposition-CdS/sputter-Zn(O,S) alternative buffer for Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 based solar cells editors-pick
    Kogler, W.; Schnabel, T.; Ahlswede, E.; Taskesen, T.; Gütay, L.; Hauschild, D.; Weinhardt, L.; Heske, C.; Seeger, J.; Hetterich, M.; Powalla, M.
    2020. Journal of applied physics, 127 (16), 165301. doi:10.1063/1.5142550
  17. Vacuum‐Assisted Growth of Low‐Bandgap Thin Films (FAMASnPbI) for All‐Perovskite Tandem Solar Cells
    Abdollahi Nejand, B.; Hossain, I. M.; Jakoby, M.; Moghadamzadeh, S.; Abzieher, T.; Gharibzadeh, S.; Schwenzer, J. A.; Nazari, P.; Schackmar, F.; Hauschild, D.; Weinhardt, L.; Lemmer, U.; Richards, B. S.; Howard, I. A.; Paetzold, U. W.
    2020. Advanced energy materials, 10 (5), Article: 1902583. doi:10.1002/aenm.201902583
  18. Perovskite Solar Cells: Record Open‐Circuit Voltage Wide‐Bandgap Perovskite Solar Cells Utilizing 2D/3D Perovskite Heterostructure
    Gharibzadeh, S.; Abdollahi Nejand, B.; Jakoby, M.; Abzieher, T.; Hauschild, D.; Moghadamzadeh, S.; Schwenzer, J. A.; Brenner, P.; Schmager, R.; Haghighirad, A. A.; Weinhardt, L.; Lemmer, U.; Richards, B. S.; Howard, I. A.; Paetzold, U. W.
    2019. Advanced energy materials, 9 (21), 1970079. doi:10.1002/aenm.201970079
  19. Semitransparent Sb2S3 thin film solar cells by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis for use in solar windows
    Eensalu, J. S.; Katerski, A.; Kärber, E.; Weinhardt, L.; Blum, M.; Heske, C.; Yang, W.; Oja Acik, I.; Krunks, M.
    2019. Beilstein journal of nanotechnology, 10, 2396–2409. doi:10.3762/bjnano.10.230
  20. Variations in the Chemical and Electronic Impact of Post-Deposition Treatments on Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se) Absorbers
    Mezher, M.; Mansfield, L. M.; Horsley, K.; Yang, W.; Blum, M.; Weinhardt, L.; Ramanathan, K.; Heske, C.
    2019. ACS applied energy materials, 2 (12), 8641–8648. doi:10.1021/acsaem.9b01565
  21. Electrolyte Stability and Discharge Products of an Ionic-Liquid-Based Li-O₂ Battery Revealed by Soft X-ray Emission Spectroscopy
    Leon, A.; Fiedler, A.; Blum, M.; Yang, W.; Bär, M.; Scheiba, F.; Ehrenberg, H.; Heske, C.; Weinhardt, L.
    2019. The journal of physical chemistry <Washington, DC> / C, 123 (51), 30827–30832. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.9b08777
  22. Modifications of the CZTSe/Mo back-contact interface by plasma treatments
    Chen, W.; Taskesen, T.; Nowak, D.; Mikolajczak, U.; Sayed, M. H.; Pareek, D.; Ohland, J.; Schnabel, T.; Ahlswede, E.; Hauschild, D.; Weinhardt, L.; Heske, C.; Parisi, J.; Gütay, L.
    2019. RSC Advances, 9 (46), 26850–26855. doi:10.1039/c9ra02847a
  23. Intermixing at the InS/CuZnSn(S,Se) Heterojunction and Its Impact on the Chemical and Electronic Interface Structure
    Hauschild, D.; Mezher, M.; Schnabel, T.; Spiering, S.; Kogler, W.; Carter, J.; Blum, M.; Yang, W.; Ahlswede, E.; Heske, C.; Weinhardt, L.
    2019. ACS applied energy materials, 2 (6), 4098–4104. doi:10.1021/acsaem.9b00263
  24. Local electronic structure of the peptide bond probed by resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering
    Weinhardt, L.; Benkert, A.; Meyer, F.; Blum, M.; Hauschild, D.; Wilks, R. G.; Bär, M.; Yang, W.; Zharnikov, M.; Reinert, F.; Heske, C.
    2019. Physical chemistry, chemical physics. doi:10.1039/c9cp02481f
  25. Molybdenum Disulfide Catalytic Coatings via Atomic Layer Deposition for Solar Hydrogen Production from Copper Gallium Diselenide Photocathodes
    Hellstern, T. R.; Palm, D. W.; Carter, J.; Deangelis, A. D.; Horsley, K.; Weinhardt, L.; Yang, W.; Blum, M.; Gaillard, N.; Heske, C.; Jaramillo, T. F.
    2019. ACS applied energy materials, 2 (2), 1060–1066. doi:10.1021/acsaem.8b01562
  26. Cadmium free Cu₂ZnSnS₄ solar cells with 9.7% efficiency
    Larsen, J. K.; Larsson, F.; Törndahl, T.; Saini, N.; Riekehr, L.; Ren, Y.; Biswal, A.; Hauschild, D.; Weinhardt, L.; Heske, C.; Platzer-Björkman, C.
    2019. Advanced energy materials, 1900439. doi:10.1002/aenm.201900439
  27. Record Open‐Circuit Voltage Wide‐Bandgap Perovskite Solar Cells Utilizing 2D/3D Perovskite Heterostructure
    Gharibzadeh, S.; Abdollahi Nejand, B.; Jakoby, M.; Abzieher, T.; Hauschild, D.; Moghadamzadeh, S.; Schwenzer, J. A.; Brenner, P.; Schmager, R.; Haghighirad, A. A.; Weinhardt, L.; Lemmer, U.; Richards, B. S.; Howard, I. A.; Paetzold, U. W.
    2019. Advanced energy materials, 9 (21), Article: 1803699. doi:10.1002/aenm.201803699
  28. Surface and Interface Properties in Thin-Film Solar Cells: Using Soft X-rays and Electrons to Unravel the Electronic and Chemical Structure
    Weinhardt, L.; Hauschild, D.; Heske, C.
    2019. Advanced materials, 31 (26), Article: 1806660. doi:10.1002/adma.201806660
  29. Rubidium Fluoride Post-Deposition Treatment: Impact on the Chemical Structure of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Surface and CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Interface in Thin-Film Solar Cells
    Kreikemeyer-Lorenzo, D.; Hauschild, D.; Jackson, P.; Friedlmeier, T. M.; Hariskos, D.; Blum, M.; Yang, W.; Reinert, F.; Powalla, M.; Heske, C.; Weinhardt, L.
    2018. ACS applied materials & interfaces, 10 (43), 37602–37608. doi:10.1021/acsami.8b10005
  30. Pyridine as a Resonantly Addressable Group to Study Electron-Transfer Dynamics in Self-Assembled Monolayers
    Wächter, T.; Weinhardt, L.; Terfort, A.; Zharnikov, M.
    2018. The journal of physical chemistry <Washington, DC> / C, 122 (23), 12534–12544. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b02995
  31. Improving performance by Na doping of a buffer layer—chemical and electronic structure of the InxSy:Na/CuIn(S,Se)2 thin‐film solar cell interface
    Hauschild, D.; Meyer, F.; Benkert, A.; Kreikemeyer-Lorenzo, D.; Dalibor, T.; Palm, J.; Blum, M.; Yang, W.; Wilks, R. G.; Bär, M.; Reinert, F.; Heske, C.; Weinhardt, L.
    2018. Progress in photovoltaics, 26 (5), 359–366. doi:10.1002/pip.2993
  32. Site-specific electronic structure of imidazole and imidazolium in aqueous solutions
    Meyer, F.; Blum, M.; Benkert, A.; Hauschild, D.; Jeyachandran, Y. L.; Wilks, R. G.; Yang, W.; Bär, M.; Reinert, F.; Heske, C.; Zharnikov, M.; Weinhardt, L.
    2018. Physical chemistry, chemical physics, 20 (12), 8302–8310. doi:10.1039/C7CP07885D
  33. Impact of a RbF Postdeposition Treatment on the Electronic Structure of the CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Heterojunction in High-Efficiency Thin-Film Solar Cells
    Hauschild, D.; Kreikemeyer-Lorenzo, D.; Jackson, P.; Friedlmeier, T. M.; Hariskos, D.; Reinert, F.; Powalla, M.; Heske, C.; Weinhardt, L.
    2017. ACS energy letters, 2 (10), 2383–2387. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00720
  34. Zn-Se-Cd-S Interlayer Formation at the CdS/Cu₂ZnSnSe₄ Thin-Film Solar Cell Interface
    Bär, M.; Repins, I.; Weinhardt, L.; Alsmeier, J.-H.; Pookpanratana, S.; Blum, M.; Yang, W.; Heske, C.; Wilks, R. G.; Noufi, R.
    2017. ACS energy letters, 2 (7), 1632–1640. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00140
  35. KF post-deposition treatment of industrial Cu(In, Ga)(S, Se)2 thin-film surfaces: Modifying the chemical and electronic structure
    Mezher, M.; Mansfield, L. M.; Horsley, K.; Blum, M.; Wieting, R.; Weinhardt, L.; Ramanathan, K.; Heske, C.
    2017. Applied physics letters, 111 (7), Art. Nr.: 071601. doi:10.1063/1.4998445
  36. X-ray Emission Spectroscopy of Proteinogenic Amino Acids at All Relevant Absorption Edges
    Meyer, F.; Blum, M.; Benkert, A.; Hauschild, D.; Jeyachandran, Y. L.; Wilks, R. G.; Yang, W.; Bär, M.; Heske, C.; Reinert, F.; Zharnikov, M.; Weinhardt, L.
    2017. The journal of physical chemistry <Washington, DC> / B, 121 (27), 6549–6556. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcb.7b04291
  37. Valence Electronic Structure of Li₂O₂, Li₂O, Li₂CO₃, and LiOH Probed by Soft X-ray Emission Spectroscopy
    Léon, A.; Fiedler, A.; Blum, M.; Benkert, A.; Meyer, F.; Yang, W.; Bär, M.; Scheiba, F.; Ehrenberg, H.; Weinhardt, L.; Heske, C.
    2017. The journal of physical chemistry <Washington, DC> / C, 121 (10), 5460–5466. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b11119
  38. High-efficiency in situ resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (iRIXS) endstation at the Advanced Light Source
    Qiao, R.; Li, Q.; Zhuo, Z.; Sallis, S.; Fuchs, O.; Blum, M.; Weinhardt, L.; Heske, C.; Pepper, J.; Jones, M.; Brown, A.; Spucces, A.; Chow, K.; Smith, B.; Glans, P.-A.; Chen, Y.; Yan, S.; Pan, F.; Piper, L. F. J.; Denlinger, J.; Guo, J.; Hussain, Z.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Yang, W.
    2017. Review of scientific instruments, 88 (3), 033106. doi:10.1063/1.4977592
  39. Formation of a K-In-Se surface species by NaF/KF postdeposition treatment of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cell absorbers
    Handick, E.; Reinhard, P.; Wilks, R. G.; Pianezzi, F.; Kunze, T.; Kreikemeyer-Lorenzo, D.; Weinhardt, L.; Blum, M.; Yang, W.; Gorgoi, M.; Ikenaga, E.; Gerlach, D.; Ueda, S.; Yamashita, Y.; Chikyow, T.; Heske, C.; Buecheler, S.; Tiwari, A. N.; Bär, M.
    2017. ACS applied materials & interfaces, 9 (4), 3581–3589. doi:10.1021/acsami.6b11892
  40. The effect of NaCl on room-temperature-processed indium oxide nanoparticle thin films for printed electronics
    Häming, M.; Baby, T. T.; Garlapati, S. K.; Krause, B.; Hahn, H.; Dasgupta, S.; Weinhardt, L.; Heske, C.
    2017. Applied surface science, 396, 912–919. doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.11.060
  41. Soft X-ray Spectroscopy of a Complex Heterojunction in High-Efficiency Thin-Film Photovoltaics: Intermixing and Zn Speciation at the Zn(O,S)/Cu(In,Ga)Se₂ Interface
    Mezher, M.; Garris, R.; Mansfield, L. M.; Blum, M.; Hauschild, D.; Horsley, K.; Duncan, D. A.; Yang, W.; Bär, M.; Weinhardt, L.; Ramanathan, K.; Heske, C.
    2016. ACS applied materials & interfaces, 8 (48), 33256–33263. doi:10.1021/acsami.6b09245
  42. A closer look at initial CdS growth on high-efficiency Cu(In, Ga)Se<inf>2</inf> absorbers using surface-sensitive methods
    Friedlmeier, T. M.; Jackson, P.; Kreikemeyer-Lorenzo, D.; Hauschild, D.; Kiowski, O.; Hariskos, D.; Weinhardt, L.; Heske, C.; Powalla, M.
    2016. 2016 IEEE 43rd Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Portland, OR, USA, 5–10 June 2016, 0457–0461, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). doi:10.1109/PVSC.2016.7749634
  43. Towards Printed Organic Light-Emitting Devices: A Solution-Stable, Highly Soluble Cu-NHetPHOS
    Wallesch, M.; Verma, A.; Fléchon, C.; Flügge, H.; Zink, D. M.; Seifermann, S. M.; Navarro, J. M.; Vitova, T.; Göttlicher, J.; Steininger, R.; Weinhardt, L.; Zimmer, M.; Gerhards, M.; Heske, C.; Bräse, S.; Baumann, T.; Volz, D.
    2016. Chemistry - a European journal, 22 (46), 16400–16405. doi:10.1002/chem.201603847
  44. A New Look at the Electronic Structure of Transparent Conductive Oxides-A Case Study of the Interface between Zinc Magnesium Oxide and Cadmium Telluride
    Duncan, D. A.; Mendelsberg, R.; Mezher, M.; Horsley, K.; Rosenberg, S. G.; Blum, M.; Xiong, G.; Weinhardt, L.; Gloeckler, M.; Heske, C.
    2016. Advanced materials interfaces, 3 (22), Article no 1600418. doi:10.1002/admi.201600418
  45. Band-Gap Widening at the Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)(2) Surface: A Novel Determination Approach Using Reflection Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy
    Hauschild, D.; Handick, E.; Goehl-Gusenleitner, S.; Meyer, F.; Schwab, H.; Benkert, A.; Pohlner, S.; Palm, J.; Tougaard, S.; Heske, C.; Weinhardt, L.; Reinert, F.
    2016. ACS applied materials & interfaces, 8 (32), 21101–21105. doi:10.1021/acsami.6b06358
  46. Electronic structure of the Zn(O,S)/Cu(In,Ga)Se₂ thin-film solar cell interface
    Mezher, M.; Garris, R.; Mansfield, L. M.; Horsley, K.; Weinhardt, L.; Duncan, D. A.; Blum, M.; Rosenberg, S. G.; Bär, M.; Ramanathan, K.; Heske, C.
    2016. Progress in photovoltaics, 24 (8), 1142–1148. doi:10.1002/pip.2764
  47. Investigation of the Ionic Hydration in Aqueous Salt Solutions by Soft X-ray Emission Spectroscopy
    Jeyachandran, Y. L.; Meyer, F.; Benkert, A.; Bär, M.; Blum, M.; Yang, W.; Reinert, F.; Heske, C.; Weinhardt, L.; Zharnikov, M.
    2016. The journal of physical chemistry <Washington, DC> / B, 120 (31), 7687–7695. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcb.6b03952
  48. Impact of Annealing-Induced Intermixing on the Electronic Level Alignment at the In₂S₃/Cu(In,Ga)Se₂ Thin-Film Solar Cell Interface
    Bär, M.; Barreau, N.; Couzinié-Devy, F.; Weinhardt, L.; Wilks, R. G.; Kessler, J.; Heske, C.
    2016. ACS applied materials & interfaces, 8 (3), 2120–2124. doi:10.1021/acsami.5b10614
  49. Isotope Effects in the Resonant Inelastic Soft X-ray Scattering Maps of Gas-Phase Methanol
    Benkert, A.; Meyer, F.; Hauschild, D.; Blum, M.; Yang, W.; Wilks, R. G.; Baer, M.; Reinert, F.; Heske, C.; Weinhardt, L.
    2016. The journal of physical chemistry <Washington, DC> / A, 120 (14), 2260–2267. doi:10.1021/acs.jpca.6b02636
  50. Site- and Symmetry-Resolved Resonant X-ray Emission Study of a Highly Ordered PTCDA Thin Film
    Weinhardt, L.; Fuchs, O.; Fischer, A.; Weigand, M.; Meyer, F.; Benkert, A.; Blum, M.; Bär, M.; Pookpanratana, S.; Denlinger, J.; Heske, C.; Umbach, E.
    2016. The journal of physical chemistry <Washington, DC> / C, 120 (16), 8607–8615. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b12422
  51. Cu K XANES and EXAFS spectroscopy on Cu(I)-emitters
    Wallesch, M.; Volz, D.; Batchelor, D.; Vitova, T.; Steininger, R.; Göttlicher, J.; Bräse, S.; Heske, C.; Weinhardt, L.
    2015. 16th International Conference on X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS16), Karlsruhe, August 23-28, 2015 Book of Abstracts
  52. Using X-ray absorption to probe the structural integrity of photoluminescent Cu(I)-complexes upon processing
    Wallesch, M.; Volz, D.; Vitova, T.; Göttlicher, J.; Steininger, R.; Bräse, S.; Heske, C.; Weinhardt, L.
    2015. 21st International Symposium on the Photochemistry nd Photophysics of Coordination Compounds (ISPPCC 2015), Krakow, PL, July 5-9, 2015
  53. Probing hydrogen bonding orbitals: resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering of aqueous NH₃
    Weinhardt, L.; Ertan, E.; Iannuzzi, M.; Weigand, M.; Fuchs, O.; Bär, M.; Blum, M.; Denlinger, J. D.; Yang, W.; Umbach, E.; Odelius, M.; Heske, C.
    2015. Physical chemistry, chemical physics, 17, 27145–27153. doi:10.1039/C5CP04898B
  54. Annealing-induced effects on the chemical structure of the In₂S₃/CuIn(S,Se)₂ thin-film solar cell interface
    Hauschild, D.; Meyer, F.; Benkert, A.; Kreikemeyer-Lorenzo, D.; Pohlner, S.; Palm, J.; Blum, M.; Yang, W.; Wilks, R. G.; Bär, M.; Heske, C.; Weinhardt, L.; Reinert, F.
    2015. The journal of physical chemistry <Washington, DC> / C, 119 (19), 10412–10416. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b01622
  55. Characterization of Sulfur bonding in CdS:O buffer layers for CdTe-based thin-film solar cells
    Kephart, J. M.; Horsley, K.; Blum, M.; Mezher, M.; Weinhardt, L.; Häming, M.; Wilks, R. G.; Hofmann, T.; Yang, W.; Bär, M.; Sampath, W. S.; Heske, C.
    2015. ACS applied materials & interfaces, 7 (30), 16382–16386. doi:10.1021/acsami.5b03503
  56. Bridging the efficiency gap: Fully bridged dinuclear Cu(I)-complexes for singlet harvesting in high-efficiency OLEDs
    Volz, D.; Chen, Y.; Wallesch, M.; Liu, R.; Flechon, C.; Zink, D. M.; Friedrichs, J.; Flügge, H.; Steininger, R.; Göttlicher, J.; Heske, C.; Weinhardt, L.; Bräse, S.; So, F.; Baumann, T.
    2015. Advanced materials, 27, 2538–2543. doi:10.1002/adma.201405897
  57. Setup for in situ investigation of gases and gas/solid interfaces by soft x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy
    Benkert, A.; Blum, M.; Meyer, F.; Wilks, R. G.; Yang, W.; Bär, M.; Reinert, F.; Heske, C.; Weinhardt, L.
    2014. Review of Scientific Instruments, 85 (1), 015119/1–5. doi:10.1063/1.4862059
  58. "Building Block Picture" of the electronic structure of aqueous cysteine derived from resonant Inelastic soft X-ray scattering
    Meyer, F.; Blum, M.; Benkert, A.; Hauschild, D.; Nagarajan, S.; Wilks, R. G.; Andersson, J.; Yang, W.; Zharnikov, M.; Bär, M.; Heske, C.; Reinert, F.; Weinhardt, L.
    2014. The journal of physical chemistry <Washington, DC> / B, 118, 13142–13150. doi:10.1021/jp5089417
  59. Ion-solvation-induced molecular reorganization in liquid water probed by resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering
    Jeyachandran, Y. L.; Meyer, F.; Nagarajan, S.; Benkert, A.; Bär, M.; Blum, M.; Yang, W.; Reinert, F.; Heske, C.; Weinhardt, L.; Zharnikov, M.
    2014. The journal of physical chemistry letters, 5, 4143–4148. doi:10.1021/jz502186a
  60. Impact of annealing on the chemical structure and morphology of the thin-film CdTe/ZnO interface
    Horsley, K.; Beal, R. J.; Wilks, R. G.; Blum, M.; Häming, M.; Hanks, D. A.; Weir, M. G.; Hofmann, T.; Weinhardt, L.; Bär, M.; Potter Jr., B. G.; Heske, C.
    2014. Journal of applied physics, 116, 024312/1–12. doi:10.1063/1.4890235
  61. Impact of environmental conditions on the chemical surface properties of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)₂ thin-film solar cell absorbers
    Hauschild, D.; Meyer, F.; Pohlner, S.; Lechner, R.; Dietmüller, R.; Palm, J.; Heske, C.; Weinhardt, L.; Reinert, F.
    2014. Journal of applied physics, 115, 183707/1–5. doi:10.1063/1.4876257
  62. Labile or stable: Can homoleptic and heteroleptic pyrphos-copper complexes be processed from solution?
    Volz, D.; Wallesch, M.; Grage, S. L.; Göttlicher, J.; Steininger, R.; Batchelor, D.; Vitova, T.; Ulrich, A. S.; Heske, C.; Weinhardt, L.; Baumann, T.; Bräse, S.
    2014. Inorganic chemistry frontiers, 53, 7837–7847. doi:10.1021/ic500135m
  63. RIXS investigations of liquids, solutions, and liquid/solid interfaces
    Weinhardt, L.; Blum, M.; Fuchs, O.; Benkert, A.; Meyer, F.; Bär, M.; Denlinger, J. D.; Yang, W.; Reinert, F.; Heske, C.
    2013. Journal of electron spectroscopy and related phenomena, 188, 111–120. doi:10.1016/j.elspec.2012.10.006
  64. The heavily intermixed In2S3/Cu(In, Ga)Se2 interface as Revealed by photoelectron and soft x-ray emission spectroscopy
    Bar, M.; Barreau, N.; Couzinie-Devy, F.; Felix, R.; Klaer, J.; Pookpanratana, S.; Blum, M.; Zhang, Y.; Denlinger, J. D.; Yang, W.; Wilks, R. G.; Weinhardt, L.; Schock, H.-W.; Kessler, J.; Heske, C.
    2013. 39th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2013; Tampa, FL; United States; 16 June 2013 through 21 June 2013, 857–862, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). doi:10.1109/PVSC.2013.6744280
  65. Surface off-stoichiometry of CuInS2 thin-film solar cell absorbers
    Bär, M.; Klaer, J.; Félix, R.; Barreau, N.; Weinhardt, L.; Wilks, R. G.; Heske, C.; Schock, H.-W.
    2013. IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 3 (2), 828–832. doi:10.1109/JPHOTOV.2012.2228299
  66. Non-equivalent carbon atoms in the resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering map of cysteine
    Meyer, F.; Weinhardt, L.; Blum, M.; Bär, M.; Wilks, R. G.; Yang, F. W.; Heske, C.; Reinert, F.
    2013. Journal of Chemical Physics, 138 (3), 034306/1–5. doi:10.1063/1.4774059
  67. Reply to "comment on ’using photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum mechanics to determine D-band energies of metals for catalytic applications’"
    Hofmann, T.; Yu, T. H.; Folse, M.; Weinhardt, L.; Bär, M.; Zhang, Y.; Merinov, B. V.; Myers, D. J.; Goddard, W. A.; Heske, C.
    2013. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 117 (13), 6916–6917. doi:10.1021/jp401620e
  68. The Be K-edge in beryllium oxide and chalcogenides: Soft x-ray absorption spectra from first-principles theory and experiment
    Olovsson, W.; Weinhardt, L.; Fuchs, O.; Tanaka, I.; Puschnig, P.; Umbach, E.; Heske, C.; Draxl, C.
    2013. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 25 (31), 315501/1–6. doi:10.1088/0953-8984/25/31/315501
  69. Cu₂₋ₓS surface phases and their impact on the electronic structure of CuInS₂ thin films - a hidden parameter in solar cell optimization
    Bär, M.; Klaer, J.; Weinhardt, L.; Wilks, R. G.; Krause, S.; Blum, M.; Yang, W.; Heske, C.; Schock, H.-W.
    2013. Advanced Energy Materials, 3 (6), 777–781. doi:10.1002/aenm.201200946
  70. Soft X-rays shedding light on thin-film solar cell surfaces and interfaces
    Bär, M.; Pookpanratana, S.; Weinhardt, L.; Wilks, R. G.; Schubert, B. A.; Marsen, B.; Unold, T.; Blum, M.; Krause, S.; Zhang, Y.; Ranasinghe, A.; Ramanathan, K.; Repins, I.; Contreras, M. A.; Nishiwaki, S.; Liu, X.; Paudel, N. R.; Fuchs, O.; Niesen, T. P.; Yang, W.; Karg, F.; Compaan, A. D.; Shafarman, W. N.; Noufi, R.; Schock, H.-W.; Heske, C.
    2013. Journal of electron spectroscopy and related phenomena, 190 (PART A), 47–53. doi:10.1016/j.elspec.2012.10.004
  71. Soft X-ray and electron spectroscopy to determine the electronic structure of materials for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production
    Weinhardt, L.; Blum, M.; Fuchs, O.; Pookpanratana, S.; George, K.; Cole, B.; Marsen, B.; Gaillard, N.; Miller, E.; Ahn, K.-S.; Shet, S.; Yan, Y.; Al-Jassim, M. M.; Denlinger, J. D.; Yang, W.; Bär, M.; Heske, C.
    2013. Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, 190 (PART A), 106–112. doi:10.1016/j.elspec.2012.11.015
  72. Lateral inhomogeneity of the Mg/(Zn+Mg) composition at the (Zn,Mg)O/CuIn(S,Se)₂ thin-film solar cell interface revealed by photoemission electron microscopy
    Bär, M.; Theisen, J. P.; Wilks, R. G.; Erfurth, F.; Felix, R.; Gerlach, D.; Haas, S.; Bismaths, T.; Reinert, F.; Kronast, F.; Niesen, T. P.; Palm, J.; Visbeck, S.; Weinhardt, L.
    2013. Journal of Applied Physics, 113, 193709/1–5. doi:10.1063/1.4804413
  73. Surface and interface spectroscopy of applied material systems
    Heske, C.; Weinhardt, L.
    2013. Physical chemistry at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Bunsentagung 2013 [112th Bunsentagung (Annual German Conference on Physical Chemistry), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), from May 9 - 11, 2013], 48–49, Inst. für Physikal. Chemie
  74. Probing the electronic structure of salt solutions by resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering
    Nagarajan, S.; Meyer, F.; Benkert, A.; Bär, M.; Wilks, R.; Yang, W.; Reinert, F.; Heske, C.; Weinhardt, L.; Zharnikov, M.
    2013. Frühjahrstagung DPG, Sektion Kondensierte Materie, Fachverband Oberflächenphysik, Regensburg, 10.-15. März 2013 Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft, R.6, B.48(2013), O 77.13
  75. Probing the electronic structure of gas phase methanol by soft RIXS
    Benkert, A.; Meyer, F.; Blum, M.; Wilks, R. G.; Bär, M.; Yang, W.; Reinert, F.; Heske, C.; Weinhardt, L.
    2013. Frühjahrstagung DPG, Sektion Kondensierte Materie, Fachverband Chemische Physik und Polymerphysik, Regensburg, 10.-15. März 2013 Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft, R.6, B.48(2013), CPP 11.15
  76. Microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on n-type GaN
    Pookpanratana, S.; France, R.; Félix, R.; Wilks, R.; Weinhardt, L.; Hofmann, T.; Bismaths, L. T.; Mulcahy, S.; Kronast, F.; Moustakas, T. D.; Bär, M.; Heske, C.
    2012. Journal of physics / D, 45 (10), Art.Nr. 105401. doi:10.1088/0022-3727/45/10/105401
  77. Identification of impurity phases in Cu 2ZnSnS 4 thin-film solar cell absorber material by soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy
    Bär, M.; Schubert, B.-A.; Wilks, R. G.; Marsen, B.; Zhang, Y.; Blum, M.; Krause, S.; Yang, W.; Unold, T.; Weinhardt, L.; Heske, C.; Schock, H.-W.
    2012. MRS Spring Meeting; San Francisco, Ca.; 25.- 29.4.2011, 91–96, Warrendale. doi:10.1557/opl.2011.842
  78. X-ray spectroscopic analysis of the growth of CBD-CdS buffers on flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cell structures
    Wilks, R. G.; Caballero, R.; Song, X.; Félix, R.; Benkert, A.; Gerlach, D.; Weinhardt, L.; Blum, M.; Yang, W.; Kaufmann, C. A.; Heske, C.; Schock, H.-W.; Bär, M.
    2012. 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2012, 1682–1687, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). doi:10.1109/PVSC.2012.6317919
  79. Photoemission study of CdTe surfaces after low-energy ion treatments
    Hanks, D.; Weir, M.; Horsley, K.; Hofmann, T.; Weinhardt, L.; Bär, M.; Barricklow, K.; Kobyakov, P.; Sampath, W.; Heske, C.
    2012. 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2012; Austin, TX; United States; 3 June 2012 through 8 June 2012, 396–399, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). doi:10.1109/PVSC.2012.6317643
  80. Chemical surface and interface properties of differently stressed (Au/Cu/)CdTe/CdS thin-film solar cell structures
    Horsley, K.; Wilks, R. G.; Hanks, D.; Pookpanratana, S.; Blum, M.; Yang, W.; Paudel, N.; Compaan, A.; Bär, M.; Weinhardt, L.; Heske, C.
    2012. 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2012; Austin, TX; United States; 3 June 2012 through 8 June 2012, 400–405, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
  81. Cu 2ZnSnS 4 thin-film solar cell absorbers illuminated by soft x-rays
    Bär, M.; Schubert, B.-A.; Marsen, B.; Wilks, R. G.; Blum, M.; Krause, S.; Pookpanratana, S.; Zhang, Y.; Unold, T.; Yang, W.; Weinhardt, L.; Heske, C.; Schock, H.-W.
    2012. Journal of Materials Research, 27 (8), 1097–1104. doi:10.1557/jmr.2012.59
  82. Nuclear dynamics and spectator effects in resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering of gas-phase water molecules
    Weinhardt, L.; Benkert, A.; Meyer, F.; Blum, M.; Wilks, R. G.; Yang, W.; Bär, M.; Reinert, F.; Heske, C.
    2012. The journal of chemical physics, 136 (14), Art.Nr. 144312. doi:10.1063/1.3702644
  83. Ultrafast proton dynamics in aqueous amino acid solutions studied by resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering
    Blum, M.; Odelius, M.; Weinhardt, L.; Pookpanratana, S.; Bär, M.; Zhang, Y.; Fuchs, O.; Yang, W.; Umbach, E.; Heske, C.
    2012. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 116 (46), 13757–13764. doi:10.1021/jp302958j
  84. Using photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum mechanics to determine d-band energies of metals for catalytic applications
    Hofmann, T.; Yu, T. H.; Folse, M.; Weinhardt, L.; Bär, M.; Zhang, Y.; Merinov, B. V.; Myers, D. J.; Goddard, W. A.; Heske, C.
    2012. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 116 (45), 24016–24026. doi:10.1021/jp303276z
  85. Characterization of Vacuum Chamber Samples for Superconducting Insertion Devices
    Jauregui, D. Saez de; Baumbach, T.; Casalbuoni, S.; Grau, A.; Gerstl, S.; Hagelstein, M.; Heske, C.; Holubek, T.; Krause, B.; Seiler, A.; Stankov, S.; Weinhardt, L.; Boffo, C.; Antoine, C.; Boudigou, Y.
    2012. IPAC2012, May 20 - 25, 2012, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Ed.: J. Corbett, 723–725, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
  86. Cu₂ZnSn(S,Se)₄ thin-film solar cell absorbers prepared from nanocrystal inks: impact of Ge incorporation on the chemical and electronic structure
    Alsmeier, J. H.; Wilks, R. G.; Hagen, C.; Gerlach, D.; Felix, R.; Weinhardt, L.; Blum, M.; Yang, W.; Heske, C.; Agrawal, R.; Bär, M.
    2012. Biannual Internat.Conf.on Materials Science Engineering (MSE 2012), Darmstadt, September 25-27, 2012
  87. Tailoring the chemical and electronic surface structure of CuInS₂ thin-film solar cell absorbes by a wet chemical Se-treatment
    Bär, M.; Klaer, J.; Weinhardt, L.; Lauermann, I.; Heske, C.; Schock, H.
    2012. 27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conf.and Exhibition (EU PVSEC 2012), Frankfurt, September 24-28, 2012
  88. Co off-stoichiometry of CUInS2 thin-film solar cell absorbers: effect on the electronic surface structure
    Weinhardt, L.; Bär, M.; Klaer, J.; Barreau, N.; Heske, C.; Schock, H.
    2012. Poster: 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC 2012), Austin, Tex., June 3-8, 2012
  89. Photoemission study of CdTe surfaces after low-energy ion of treatments
    Hanks, D.; Weir, M.; Horsley, K.; Hofmann, T.; Weinhardt, L.; Barricklow, K.; Kobyakov, P.; Sampath, W.; Heske, C.
    2012. Poster: 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC 2012), Austin, Tex., June 3-8, 2012
  90. Aging effects of Cu(In, Ga)(S, Se)2 absorbers in thin-film solar sells studied by spectroscopy
    Hauschild, D.; Meyer, F.; Pohlner, S.; Lechner, R.; Dietmüller, R.; Palm, J.; Weinhardt, L.; Reinert, F.
    2012. Poster: Spring Meeting of the European Materials Research Society, Strasbourg, F, May 14-18, 2012
  91. Soft X-Ray and Electron Spectroscopy: A Unique “Tool Chest” to Characterize the Chemical and Electronic Properties of Surfaces and Interfaces
    Abou-Ras, D.; Kirchartz, T.; Rau, U.; Bär, M.; Weinhardt, L.; Heske, C.
    2011. Advanced Characterization Techniques for Thin Film Solar Cells. Hrsg.: D. Abou-Ras, 501–522, Wiley-VCH Verlag. doi:10.1002/9783527636280.ch15
  92. CdCl 2 activation-induced chemical interaction at the CdTe/ZnO 1-xS x thin-film solar cell interface
    Bär, M.; Perrenoud, J.; Wilks, R. G.; Buecheler, S.; Kranz, L.; Fella, C.; Skarp, J.; Blum, M.; Yang, W.; Weinhardt, L.; Heske, C.; Tiwari, A. N.
    2011. Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. 37th IEEE PVSC, Seattle, Wa. 20.-24.06.2011, 6186505, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). doi:10.1109/PVSC.2011.6186505
  93. Electronic structure of Cu2ZnSnS4 probed by soft x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy
    Bär, M.; Schubert, B.-A.; Marsen, B.; Schorr, S.; Wilks, R. G.; Weinhardt, L.; Pookpanratana, S.; Blum, M.; Krause, S.; Zhang, Y.; Yang, W.; Unold, T.; Heske, C.; Schock, H.-W.
    2011. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, 84 (3), 035308. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.84.035308
  94. Nuclear dynamics in the core-excited state of aqueous ammonia probed by resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering
    Weinhardt, L.; Weigand, M.; Fuchs, O.; Bär, M.; Blum, M.; Denlinger, J. D.; Yang, W.; Umbach, E.; Heske, C.
    2011. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, 84 (10), 104202. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.84.104202
  95. Native oxidation and Cu-poor surface structure of thin film Cu 2ZnSnS4 solar cell absorbers
    Bär, M.; Schubert, B.-A.; Marsen, B.; Krause, S.; Pookpanratana, S.; Unold, T.; Weinhardt, L.; Heske, C.; Schock, H.-W.
    2011. Applied Physics Letters, 99 (11), 112103. doi:10.1063/1.3637574
  96. Soft x-ray emission spectroscopy studies of the electronic structure of silicon supersaturated with sulfur
    Sullivan, J. T.; Wilks, R. G.; Winkler, M. T.; Weinhardt, L.; Recht, D.; Said, A. J.; Newman, B. K.; Zhang, Y.; Blum, M.; Krause, S.; Yang, W. L.; Heske, C.; Aziz, M. J.; Br, M.; Buonassisi, T.
    2011. Applied Physics Letters, 99 (14), 142102. doi:10.1063/1.3643050
  97. Synthesis and characterization of conductive polyimide/carbon composites with Pt surface deposits
    Kinyanjui, J. M.; Hatchett, D. W.; Castruita, G.; Ranasinghe, A. D.; Weinhardt, L.; Hofmann, T.; Heske, C.
    2011. Synthetic metals, 161 (21-22), 2368–2377. doi:10.1016/j.synthmet.2011.08.046
  98. Impact of KCN etching on the chemical and electronic surface structure of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin-film solar cell absorbers
    Bär, M.; Schubert, B.-A.; Marsen, B.; Krause, S.; Pookpanratana, S.; Unold, T.; Weinhardt, L.; Heske, C.; Schock, H.-W.
    2011. Applied physics letters, 99 (15), 152111. doi:10.1063/1.3650717
  99. Electronic and chemical properties of non-vacuum deposited chalcopyrite solar cells
    Horsley, K.; Pookpanratana, S.; Krause, S.; Hofmann, T.; Blum, M.; Weinhardt, L.; Bär, M.; George, K.; Van Duren, J.; Jackrel, D.; Heske, C.
    2011. 37th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2011, Seattle, WA. 19 June 2011 - 24 June 2011, Art. Nr. 6185972, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). doi:10.1109/PVSC.2011.6185972
  100. Cliff-like conduction band offset and KCN-induced recombination barrier enhancement at the CdS/Cu2ZnSnS4 thin-film solar cell heterojunction
    Bär, M.; Schubert, B.-A.; Marsen, B.; Wilks, R. G.; Pookpanratana, S.; Blum, M.; Krause, S.; Unold, T.; Yang, W.; Weinhardt, L.; Heske, C.; Schock, H.-W.
    2011. Applied Physics Letters, 99 (22), 222105/1–3. doi:10.1063/1.3663327
  101. Electron-hole correlation effects in core-level spectroscopy probed by the resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering map of C₆₀
    Weinhardt, L.; Fuchs, O.; Batchelor, D.; Bär, M.; Blum, M.; Denlinger, J. D.; Yang, W.; Schöll, A.; Reinert, F.; Umbach, E.; Heske, C.
    2011. Journal of Chemical Physics, 135, 104705/1–5. doi:10.1063/1.3633953

 Further Publications

  1. M. Häming, L. Weinhardt, A. Schöll, F. Reinert, “Vibronic structure in resonant Auger Raman spectroscopy of large p-conjugated Molecules”, Chem. Phys. Lett. 510, 82 (2011).
  2. F. Erfurth, A. Grimm, J. Palm, T.P. Niesen, F. Reinert, L. Weinhardt, and E. Umbach, “Direct determination of the band alignment at the (Zn,Mg)O/CISSe interface”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 142107 (2011).
  3. Y. Zhang, G. Gajjala, T. Hofmann, L. Weinhardt, M. Bär, and C. Heske, M. Seelmann-Eggebert, and P. Meisen, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the chemical interaction at the Pd/SiC interface”, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 093702 (2010).
  4. S. Pookpanratana, X. Liu, N. R. Paudel, L. Weinhardt, M. Bär, Y. Zhang, A. Ranasinghe, F. Khan, M. Blum, W. Yang, A. Compaan, and C. Heske, “Effects of post-deposition treatments on surfaces of CdTe/CdS solar cells”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 172109 (2010).
  5. S. Pookpanratana, I. Repins, M. Bär, L. Weinhardt, Y. Zhang, R. Félix, M. Blum, W. Yang, R. Noufi, M. A. Contreras, and C. Heske, “CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 interface formation in high-efficiency thin film solar cells”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 074101(2010).
  6. M. Bär, M. Wimmer, R.G. Wilks, M. Roczen, D. Gerlach, F. Ruske, K. Lips, B. Rech, L. Weinhardt, M. Blum, S. Pookpanratana, S. Krause, Y. Zhang, C. Heske, W. Yang, J.D. Denlinger, “Impact of solid-phase crystallization of amorphous silicon on the chemical structure of the buried Si/ZnO thin film solar cell interface”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 072105 (2010).
  7. S. Pookpanratana, R. France, M. Blum, A. Bell, M. Bär, L. Weinhardt, Y. Zhang, T. Hofmann, O. Fuchs, W. Yang, J. D. Denlinger, S. Mulcahy, T. D. Moustakas, and C. Heske, “Chemical structure of vanadium-based contact formation on n-AlN“, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 024906 (2010).
  8. L. Weinhardt, M. Bär, M. Morkel, T.P. Niesen, F. Karg, K. Ramanathan, M. Contreras, R. Noufi, C. Heske, and E. Umbach, “Sulfur gradient driven Se diffusion at the CdS/CuIn(S,Se)2 interface in thin film solar cells”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 182102 (2010).
  9. M. Bär, N. Barreau, F. Couzinié-Devy, S. Pookpanratana, J. Klaer, M. Blum, Y. Zhang, W. Yang, J.D. Denlinger, H.-W. Schock, L. Weinhardt, J. Kessler, and C. Heske, “Non-destructive depth-resolved spectroscopic investigation of the heavily intermixed In2S3/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 interface”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 184101 (2010).
  10. Tran, R. Felix, M. Bär, L. Weinhardt, Y. Zhang, and C. Heske, “Oxidation of Ti-decorated Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes and subsequent reduction by Lithium”, JACS 132, 5789 (2010).
  11. L. Weinhardt, O. Fuchs, M. Blum, M. Bär, M. Weigand, J.D. Denlinger, Y. Zubavichus, M. Zharnikov, M. Grunze, C. Heske, and E. Umbach, “Resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy of liquid water: novel instrumentation, high resolution, and the “map” approach”, J. Electr. Spectr. Rel. Phenom. 177, 206 (2010).
  12. M. Bär, L. Weinhardt, B. Cole, B. Marsen, N. Gaillard, E.L. Miller, and C. Heske, “Mo incorporation in WO3 thin film photoanodes: Tailoring the electronic structure for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 032107 (2010).
  13. N. Gaillard, B. Cole, B. Marsen, J. Kaneshiro, E.L. Miller, L. Weinhardt, M. Bär, C. Heske, K. -S. Ahn, Y. Yan, and M. M. Al-Jassim, “Origin of improved current collection in WO3:Mo/WO3 bilayer photoelectrodes”, J. Mater. Res. 25, 45 (2010).
  14. M. Blum, L. Weinhardt, O. Fuchs, M. Bär, Y. Zhang, M. Weigand, S. Krause, S. Pookpanratana, T. Hofmann, W. Yang, J. D. Denlinger, E. Umbach, and C. Heske, “Solid and liquid spectroscopic analysis (SALSA) – a soft x-ray spectroscopy endstation with a novel flow-through liquid cell“, Rev. Sci. Instr. 80, 123102 (2009).
  15. M. Rusu, M. Bär, S. Lehmann, S. Sadewasser, L. Weinhardt, C.A. Kaufmann, E. Strub, J. Röhrich, W. Bohne, I. Lauermann, Ch. Jung, C. Heske, and M. Ch. Lux-Steiner, “Three-dimensional structure of the buffer/absorber interface in CdS/CuGaSe2 based thin film solar cells“, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 173502 (2009).
  16. F. Erfurth, B. Hußmann, A. Schöll, F. Reinert, A. Grimm, I. Lauermann, M. Bär, Th. Niesen, J. Palm, S. Visbeck, L. Weinhardt, E. Umbach, “Chemical structure of the (Zn1-x,Mgx)O/CuIn(S,Se)2 interface in thin film solar cells”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 122104 (2009).
  17. M. Bär, I. Repins, M.A. Contreras, L. Weinhardt, R. Noufi, and C. Heske, “Chemical and electronic surface structure of 20%-efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cell absorbers”, Appl. Phys Lett. 95, 052106 (2009).
  18. O. Fuchs, L. Weinhardt, M. Blum, M. Weigand, E. Umbach, M. Bär, C. Heske, J. Denlinger, Y.-D. Chuang, W. McKinney, Z. Hussain, E. Gullikson, M. Jones, P. Batson, B. Nelles, and R. Follarth, “High-Resolution, high-transmission soft x-ray spectrometer for the study of biological samples”, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 063103 (2009).
  19. L. Weinhardt, O. Fuchs, A. Fleszar, M. Bär, M. Blum, M. Weigand, J.D. Denlinger, W. Yang, W. Hanke, E. Umbach, and C. Heske, “Resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering of CdS: A two-dimensional electronic structure map approach”, Phys. Rev. B 79, 165305 (2009).
  20. M. Bär, K.-S. Ahn, S. Shet, Y. Yan, L. Weinhardt, O. Fuchs, M. Blum, S. Pookpanratana, K. George, W. Yang, J.D. Denlinger, M. Al-Jassim, and C. Heske, “Impact of air-exposure on the chemical and electronic structure of ZnO:Zn3N2 thin films”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 012110 (2009).
  21. M. Bär, L. Weinhardt, S. Pookpanratana, and C. Heske, S. Nishiwaki and W. Shafarman, O. Fuchs, M. Blum, W. Yang, and J.D. Denlinger, “Depth-resolved band gap in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 thin films”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 244103 (2008).
  22. S. Pookpanratana, M. Bär, L. Weinhardt, C. Heske, R. France, T. D. Moustakas, O. Fuchs, M. Blum, W. Yang, and J. D. Denlinger, “Intermixing and chemical structure at the interface between n-GaN and V-based contacts”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 172106 (2008).
  23. M. Bär, L. Weinhardt, C. Heske, S. Nishiwaki, and W. N. Shafarman, “Chemical structure of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2/Mo and Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2/Mo interfaces”, Phys. Rev. B 78, 075404 (2008).
  24. M. Bär, L. Weinhardt, S. Pookpanratana, C. Heske, S. Nishiwaki, and W. Shafarman, “Electronic level alignment at the deeply buried absorber/Mo interface in chalcopyrite-based thin film solar cells”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 042110 (2008).
  25. O. Fuchs, M. Zharnikov, L. Weinhardt, M. Blum, M. Weigand, Y. Zubavichus, M. Bär, F. Maier, W. Yang, J. D. Denlinger, C. Heske, M. Grunze, and E. Umbach, Reply to Comment on "Isotope and temperature effects in liquid water probed by x-ray absorption and resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy", Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 249802 (2008).
  26. L. Weinhardt, M. Blum, M. Bär, C. Heske, B. Cole, B. Marsen, and E.L. Miller, ”Electronic surface level positions of WO3 thin films for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production“, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 3078 (2008).
  27. O. Fuchs, F. Maier, L. Weinhardt, M. Weigand, M. Blum, M. Zharnikov, J. Denlinger, M. Grunze, C. Heske, and E. Umbach,“A liquid flow cell to study the electronic structure of liquids with soft X-rays”, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 585, 172 (2008).
  28. L. Weinhardt, O. Fuchs, E. Umbach, C. Heske, A. Fleszar, W. Hanke, and J.D. Denlinger, “Resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations of the electronic band structure of CdS”, Phys. Rev. B 75, 165207 (2007).
  29. L. Weinhardt, M. Blum, M. Bär, C. Heske, O. Fuchs, E. Umbach, J.D. Denlinger, K. Ramanathan, and R. Noufi, "Chemical properties of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2/Mo/glass interfaces in thin film solar cells", Thin Solid Films 515, 6119-6122 (2007).
  30. M. Bär, A. Ennaoui, J. Klaer, R. Sáez-Araoz, T. Kropp, L. Weinhardt, C. Heske. H.-W. Schock, Ch.-H. Fischer, M.C. Lux-Steiner, “The electronic structure of the [Zn(S,O)/ZnS]/CuInS2 heterointerface – Impact of post-annealing”, Chem. Phys. Lett. 433, 71 (2006).
  31. M. Bär, L. Weinhardt, C. Heske, H.-J. Muffler, E. Umbach, M.Ch. Lux-Steiner, Th. P. Niesen, F. Karg, and Ch.-H. Fischer, "Chemical insights into the Cd2+/NH3-treatment – an approach to explain the formation of Cd-compounds on Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 absorbers", Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 90, 3151 (2006).
  32. L. Weinhardt, O. Fuchs, D. Groß, E. Umbach, C. Heske, N.G. Dhere, A.A. Kadam, and S.S. Kulkarni, "Surface modifications of Cu(In,Ga)S2 thin film solar cell absorbers by KCN and H2O2/H2SO4 treatments", J. Appl. Phys. 100, 024907 (2006).
  33. D. Eich, O. Fuchs, U. Groh, L. Weinhardt, R. Fink, E. Umbach, C. Heske, A. Fleszar, W. Hanke, E.K.U. Gross, C. Bostedt, T. van Buuren, N. Franco, L.J. Terminello, M. Keim, G. Reuscher, H. Lugauer, and A. Waag, "Resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering of Be chalcogenides“, Phys. Rev. B 73, 115212 (2006).
  34. L. Weinhardt, O. Fuchs, A. Peter, E. Umbach, C. Heske, J. Reichardt, M. Bär, I. Lauermann, I. Kötschau, A. Grimm, A. Sokoll, M.Ch. Lux-Steiner, Ch. Jung, W. Gudat, T. P. Niesen, and F. Karg, “Spectroscopic investigation of the deeply buried Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2/Mo interface in thin film solar cells”, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 074705 (2006).
  35. N.G. Dhere, A.A. Kadam, A.H. Jahagirdar, S.S. Kulkarni, L. Weinhardt, D. Groß, C. Heske, and E. Umbach, “Spectroscopic analysis of CIGS2/CdS thin film solar cell heterojunctions on stainless steel foil”, Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 66, 1872-1875 (2005).
  36. M. Bär, L. Weinhardt, C. Heske, H.-J. Muffler, M. Ch. Lux-Steiner, E. Umbach, and Ch.-H. Fischer, "Cd2+/NH3-treatment of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 thin film solar cell absorbers – a model for the performance-enhancing processes in the partial electrolyte", Prog. Photovolt. 13, 571-577 (2005).
  37. M. Bär, J. Reichardt, A. Grimm, I. Kötschau, I. Lauermann, K. Rahne, S. Sokoll, M.C. Lux-Steiner, Ch.-H. Fischer, L. Weinhardt, E. Umbach, C. Heske, Ch. Jung, T.P. Niesen, and S. Visbeck, "The Zn(O,OH) material system in chalcopyrite thin film solar cells: Position of the valence band maximum vs. composition", J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053702 (2005).
  38. M. Odelius, H. Ogasawara, D. Nordlund, O. Fuchs, L. Weinhardt, F. Maier, E. Umbach, C. Heske, Y. Zubavichus, M. Grunze, J.D. Denlinger, L.G.M. Pettersson, and A. Nilsson, "Ultra-fast Dynamics in Water probed by X-ray Emission Spectroscopy", Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 227401 (2005).
  39. M. Bär, S. Lehmann, M. Rusu, A. Grimm, I. Kötschau, I. Lauermann, P. Pistor, S. Sokoll, Th. Schedel-Niedrig, M.C. Lux-Steiner, Ch.-H. Fischer, L. Weinhardt, C. Heske, and Ch. Jung, "Cd2+/NH3 – Treatment Induced Formation of a CdSe Surface Layer on CuGaSe2 Thin Film Solar Cell Absorbers", Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 222107 (2005).
  40. J. Reichardt, M. Bär, A. Grimm, I. Kötschau, I. Lauermann, S. Sokoll, M. C. Lux-Steiner, Ch.-H. Fischer, C. Heske, L. Weinhardt, O. Fuchs, Ch. Jung, W. Gudat, and F. Karg, "Inducing and monitoring photoelectrochemical reactions at surfaces and buried interfaces in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 thin film solar cells", Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 172102 (2005).
  41. L. Weinhardt, O. Fuchs, D. Groß, G. Storch, E. Umbach, N.G. Dhere, A.A. Kadam, S.S. Kulkarni, and C. Heske, "Band alignment at the CdS/Cu(In,Ga)S2 interface in thin film solar cells", Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 062109 (2005).
  42. Y. Zubavichus, M. Zharnikov, A. Shaporenko, O. Fuchs, L. Weinhardt, C. Heske, E. Umbach, J.D. Denlinger, and M. Grunze, "Soft X-ray induced decomposition of phenylalanine and tyrosine: a comparative study", J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 4557-4565 (2004).
  43. L. Weinhardt, C. Heske, E. Umbach, T.P. Niesen, S. Visbeck, and F. Karg, "Band alignment at the i-ZnO/CdS interface in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 thin film solar cells", Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3175-3177 (2004).
  44. Y. Zubavichus, M. Grunze, O. Fuchs, L. Weinhardt, C. Heske, E. Umbach, and J. D. Denlinger, "Soft X-ray induced decomposition of amino acids: a time-resolved XPS, mass-spectrometry, and NEXAFS study”, Radiat. Res. 161, 346-358 (2004).
  45. T. Strunskus, O. Fuchs, L. Weinhardt, C. Heske, M. Guraya, M. Muhler, V. Staemmler, and Ch. Wöll, "The valence electronic structure of zinc oxide powders as determined by X-ray emission spectroscopy: variation of electronic structure with particle size", J. Electron Spectrosc. Rel. Phenom. 134, 183-189 (2004).
  46. Ch. Barglik-Chory, D. Buchold, M. Schmitt, W. Kiefer, C. Heske, C. Kumpf, O. Fuchs, L. Weinhardt, A. Stahl, E. Umbach, M. Lentze, J. Geurts, and G. Müller, "Synthesis, structure, and spectroscopic characterization of water-soluble CdS nanoparticles", Chem. Phys. Lett. 379, 443-451 (2003).
  47. Lauermann, M. Bär, A. Ennaoui, U. Fiedeler, C.-H. Fischer, A. Grimm, I. M. Kötschau, M. C. Lux-Steiner, J. Reichardt, B. R. Sankapal, S. Siebentritt, S. Sokoll, L. Weinhardt, O. Fuchs, C. Heske, C. Jung, W. Gudat, F. Karg, and T. P. Niesen, "Analysis of zinc compound buffer layers in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 thin film solar cells by synchrotron-based soft X-ray spectroscopy", Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 763, ISBN 1-55899-700-8, p. 610-613 (2003).
  48. Meeder, L. Weinhardt, R. Stresing, D. Fuertes Marrón, R. Würz, S.M. Babu, T. Schedel-Niedrig, M.Ch. Lux-Steiner, C. Heske, and E. Umbach, "Surface and bulk properties of CuGaSe2 thin films“, J. of Phys. and Chem. of Solids 64, 1553-1557 (2003).
  49. Heske, U. Groh, O. Fuchs, L. Weinhardt, E. Umbach, Th. Schedel-Niedrig, Ch.-H. Fischer, M.Ch. Lux-Steiner, S. Zweigart, F. Karg, J.D. Denlinger, B. Rude, C. Andrus, and F. Powell, "Monitoring chemical reactions on surfaces in liquids: water on CuIn(S,Se)2 thin film solar cell absorbers", J. Chem. Phys. (Comm.) 119, 10467-10470 (2003).
  50. C. Heske, U. Groh, O. Fuchs, L. Weinhardt, E. Umbach, M. Grün, S. Petillon, A. Dinger, C. Klingshirn, W. Szuszkiewicz, and A. Fleszar, “Studying the local chemical environment of sulfur atoms at buried interfaces in CdS/ZnSe superlattices“, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2360-2362 (2003).
  51. Th. Gleim, L. Weinhardt, Th. Schmidt, R. Fink, C. Heske, E. Umbach, L. Hansen, G. Landwehr, A. Waag, A. Fleszar, B. Richter, Ch. Ammon, M. Probst, and H.-P. Steinrück, "The influence of As-passivation on the electronic level alignment at BeTe/Si(111)-interfaces“, Phys. Rev. B 67, 205315 (2003).
  52. L. Weinhardt, M. Bär, H.-J. Muffler, Ch.-H. Fischer, M.C. Lux-Steiner, T.P. Niesen, F. Karg, Th. Gleim, C. Heske, and E. Umbach, "Impact of Cd2+-treatment on the band alignment at the ILGAR-ZnO/CuIn(S,Se)2 heterojunction”, Thin Solid Films 431-432, 272-276 (2003).
  53. A.S. Ethiraj, N. Hebalkar, S.K. Kulkarni, R. Pasricha, J. Urban, C. Dem, M. Schmitt, W. Kiefer, L. Weinhardt, S. Joshi, R. Fink, C. Heske, C. Kumpf, and E. Umbach, "Enhancement of photoluminescence in manganese doped ZnS nanoparticles due to a silica shell”, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 8945-8953 (2003). Selected for the Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology 7(19), 2003.
  54. L. Weinhardt, Th. Gleim, O. Fuchs, C. Heske, E. Umbach, M. Bär, H.-J. Muffler, Ch.-H. Fischer, M.C. Lux-Steiner, Y. Zubavichus, T.P. Niesen, and F. Karg, “CdS- and Cd(OH)2-formation during Cd-treatments of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 thin film solar cell absorbers”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 571-573 (2003).
  55. C. Heske, U. Groh, L. Weinhardt, O. Fuchs, B. Holder, E. Umbach, C. Bostedt, L.J. Terminello, S. Zweigart, T.P. Niesen, and F. Karg, "Damp-heat induced sulfate formation in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2–based thin film solar cells”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4550-4552 (2002).
  56. Th. Gleim, L. Weinhardt, Th. Schmidt, R. Fink, C. Heske, E. Umbach, P. Grabs, G. Schmidt, L.W. Molenkamp, B. Richter, A. Fleszar, and H.-P. Steinrück, "Energy level alignment at zincblende Cd(Mn)Se/ZnTe/InAs(100) interfaces“, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3813-3815 (2002).
  57. M. Morkel, L. Weinhardt, B. Lohmüller, C. Heske, E. Umbach, W. Riedl, S. Zweigart, and  F. Karg, "Flat conduction band alignment at the CdS/CuInSe2 thin film solar cell heterojunction", Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4482-4484 (2001).